Literature Citations - Bacteria
 BACTERIAL DISEASES OF ONIONS 

                                                   

Please send updates to Howard F. Schwartz at: howard.schwartz@colostate.edu (11/2/2012

Alippi, A. M., and Lopez, A. C.  2010.  First report of leaf spot disease of maize caused by Pantoea ananatis in Argentina.  Plant Dis. 94:487.

 

Alvarez, A. M., Buddenhagen, I. W., Buddenhagen, E. S., and Domen, H. Y.  1978.  Bacterial blight of onion, a new disease caused by Xanthomonas sp.  Phytopathology 68:1132-1136.

 

Azad, H. R., Holmes, G. J., and Cooksey, D. A.  2000.  A new leaf blotch disease of sudangrass caused by Pantoea ananas and Pantoea stewartii.  Plant Dis.  84:973-979.

 

Bazzi, C.   1979.  Identification of Pesudomonas cepacia on onion bulbs in Italy.  Phytopath. Z.  95:254-258.

 

Bishop, A. L., and Davis, R. M.  1990.  Internal decay of onions caused by Enterobacter cloacae.  Plant Dis.  74:692-694.

 

Brewster, J. L.  2008.  Bacterial diseases.  Pp. 209-216 in: Onions and Other Vegetable Alliums, 2nd Ed.  Crop Production Science in Horticulture, CABI, Cambridge, MA.

 

Bruton, B. D., Wells, J. M., Lester, G. E., and Patterson, C. L.  1991.  Pathogenicity and characterization of Erwinia ananas causing a postharvest disease of cantaloup fruit.  Plant Dis.  75:180-183.

 

Carr, E. A., Bonasera, J. M., Zaide, A. M., Lorbeer, J. W., and Beer, S. V.  2010.  First report of bulb disease of onion caused by Pantoea ananatis in New York.  Plant Dis. 94:916.

 

Cother, E. J., and Dowling, V.  1985.  Association of Pseudomonas cepacia with internal breakdown of onion – a new record for Australia.  Australian Plant Path.  14:10-12.

 

Cother, E. J., and Dowling, V.  1986.  Bacteria associated with internal breakdown of onion bulbs and their possible role in disease expression.  Plant Pathology  35:329-336.

 

Cother, E. J., Darbyshire, B., and Brewer, J.  1976.  Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Cause of internal brown rot of onion.  Phytopathology  66:828-834.

 

Edens, D. G., Gitaitis, R. D., and Nischwitz, C.  2006.  First report of Pantoea agglomerans causing a leaf blight and bulb rot of onions in Georgia.  Plant Dis.  90:1551.

 

Gent, D. H.  2008.  Enterobacter bulb decay.  Pp. 67-68 in: Compendium of Onion and Garlic Diseases and Pests.  Edited by H. F. Schwartz and S. K. Mohan.  APS Press, St. Paul, MN  127 pp

 

Gent, D. H., Schwartz, H. F., and Nissen, S. J.  2003.  Effect of commercial adjuvants on vegetable crop fungicide coverage, absorption, and efficacy.  Plant Dis.  87:591-597.

 

Gent, D. H., and Schwartz, H. F. 2005.  Management of Xanthomonas leaf blight of onion with a plant activator, biological control agents, and copper bactericides.  Plant Dis. 89:631-639.

 

Gent, D. H., and Schwartz, H. F.  2005.  Effect of nitrogen fertilization and seed contamination on epiphytic populations of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii and development of Xanthomonas leaf blight of onion.  Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2005-0331-01-RS.

 

Gent, D. H., and Schwartz, H. F.  2008.  Xanthomonas leaf blight.  Pp. 56-58 in: Compendium of Onion and Garlic Diseases and Pests.  Edited by H. F. Schwartz and S. K. Mohan.  APS Press, St. Paul, MN  127 pp.

 

Gent, D. H., and Schwartz, H. F.  2008.  Leaf streak and bulb rot.  Pp. 58-59 in: Compendium of Onion and Garlic Diseases and Pests.  Edited by H. F. Schwartz and S. K. Mohan.  APS Press, St. Paul, MN  127 pp.

 

Gent, D. H., and Schwartz, H. F.  2008.  Center rot.  Pp. 64-66 in: Compendium of Onion and Garlic Diseases and Pests.  Edited by H. F. Schwartz and S. K. Mohan.  APS Press, St. Paul, MN  127 pp

 

Gent, D. H., and Schwartz, H. F.  2008.  Bacterial stalk and leaf necrosis.  Pp. 66-67 in: Compendium of Onion and Garlic Diseases and Pests.  Edited by H. F. Schwartz and S. K. Mohan.  APS Press, St. Paul, MN  127 pp

 

Gent, D. H., Lang, J. M., and Schwartz, H. F.  2005.  Epiphytic survival of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii and X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli on leguminous hosts and onion.  Plant Dis. 89:558-564.

 

Gent, D. H., Lang, J. M., Bartolo, M. E., and Schwartz, H. F.  2005.  Inoculum sources and survival of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii in Colorado.  Plant Dis. 89:507-514.

 

Gent, D. H., Al-Saadi, Gabriel, D. W., Louis, F. J., Ishimaru, C. A., and Schwartz, H. F.  2005.  Pathogenic and genetic relatedness among Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii and other pathovars of X. axonopodis.  Phytopathology 95:918-925.

 

Gent, D. H., Schwartz, H. F., Ishimaru, C. A., Louws, F. J., Cramer, R. A., and Lawrence, C. B.  2004.  Polyphasic characterization of Xanthomonas strains from onion.  Phytopathology  94:184-195.

 

Gitaitis, R. D. and Gay, J. D. 1997.  First report of a leaf blight, seed stalk rot, and bulb decay of onion by Pantoea ananas in Georgia.  Plant Dis. 81:1096.

 

Gitaitis, R. D., Baird, R. E., Beaver, R. W., Sumner, D. R., Gay, J. D., and Smittle, D. A.  1991.  Bacterial blight of sweet onion caused by Pseudomonas viridiflava in Vidalia, Georgia.  Plant Dis.  75:1180-1182.

 

Gitaitis, R., Gay, D., Smittle, D., MacDonald, G., Maw, B., Johnson, W. C., III, Tollner, B., and Hung, Y.  1997.  Bacterial streak and bulb rot of sweet onion: I. A diagnostic medium for the semiselective isolation and enumeration of Pseudomonas viridiflava.  Plant Dis.  81:897-900.

 

Gitaitis, R., MacDonald, G., Torrance, R., Hartley, R., Sumner, D. R., Gay, J. D., and Johnson, W. C., III.  1998.  Bacterial streak and bulb rot of sweet onion: II. Epiphytic survival of Pseudomonas viridiflava in association with multiple weed hosts.  Plant Dis.  82:935-938.

 

Gitaitis, R., Mullis, S., Lewis, K., Langston, D., Watson, A. K., Sanders, H., Torrance, R., Jones, J. B., and Nischwitz, C.  2012.  First report of a new disease of onion in Georgia caused by a nonfluorescent Pseudomonas species.  Plant Dis.  96:285.

 

Gitaitis, R., Walcott, R., Culpepper, S., Sanders, H., Zolobowska, L., and Langston, D.  2002.  Recovery of Pantoea ananatis, causal agent of center rot of onion, from weeds and crops in Georgia, USA.  Crop Protection  21:983-989.

 

Gitaitis, R., Walcott, R., Wells, M. L., Diaz Perez, J. C., and Sanders, F. H.  2003.  Transmission of Pantoea ananatis, causal agent of center rot of onion, by tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca.  Plant Dis.  87:675-678.

 

Hattingh, M. J., and Walters, D. F.  1981.  Stalk and leaf necrosis of onion caused by Erwinia herbicola.  Plant Dis.  65:615-618

 

Humeau, L., Roumagnac, P., Picard, Y., Robine-Soustrade, I., Chiroleu, F., Gagnevin, L., and Pruvost, O.  2006.  Quantitative and molecular epidemiology of bacterial blight of onion in seed production fields.  Phytopathology  96:1345-1354.

 

Irwin, R. D., and Vaughan, E. K.  1972.  Bacterial rot of onion and the relation of irrigation water to disease incidence.  Phytopathology  62:1103  (Abstr.).

 

Isakeit, T., Miller, M. E., Barnes, L. W., Dickstein, E. R., and Jones, J. B.  2000.  First report of leaf blight of onion caused by Xanthomonas campestris in the continental United States.  Plant Disease Note  84:201.

 

Johnson, D. A., Regner, K. M., and Lunden, J. D.  1989.  Yeast soft rot of onion in the Walla Walla Valley of Washington and Oregon.  Plant Dis.  73:686-688.

 

Johnson, D. A., Rogers, J. D., and Regner, K. M.  1988.  A soft rot of onion caused by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus.  Plant Dis.  72:359-361.

 

Johnson, D. A., Rogers, J. D., and Schroeder, B. K.  2008.  Yeast soft rot.  Pp. 68-69 in: Compendium of Onion and Garlic Diseases and Pests, 2nd Ed.  Edited by H. F. Schwartz and S. K. Mohan.  APS Press, St. Paul, MN  127 pp

 

Kadota, I., Uehara, K., Shinohara, H., and Nishiyama, K.  2000.  Bacterial blight of Welsh onion: A new disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. allii pv. nov.  J. Gen. Plant Path.  66:310-315.

 

Kawamoto, S. O., and Lorbeer, J. W.  1972.  Factors affecting infection of onion leaves by Pseudomonas cepacia.  Phytopathology  62:496  (Abstr.).

 

Kawamoto, S. O., and Lorbeer, J. W.  1972.  Multiplication of Pseudomonas cepacia in onion leaves.  Phytopathology  62:1263-1265.

 

Kawamoto, S. O., and Lorbeer, J. W.  1972.  Histology of onion leaves infected with Pseudomonas cepacia.  Phytopathology  62:1266-1271.

 

Kawamoto, S. O., and Lorbeer, J. W.  1974.  Infection of onion leaves by Pseudomonas cepacia.  Phytopathology  64:1440-1445.

 

Kim, J., Choi, O., and Kim, T. S.  2012.  An outbreak of onion center rot caused by Pantoea ananatis in Korea.  Plant Dis. 96:1576.

 

Kishun, R., and Swarup, J.  1979.  In vitro production of enzymes and toxins by Pseudomonas alliicola – the incitant of bacterial stalk rot of onion.  Indian Phytopath.  32:328-330.

 

Ko, S.-S., Chang, W.-N., Wang, J.-F., Cherngs, S.-J., and Shanmugasundaram, S.  2002.  Storage variability among short-day onion cultivars under high temperature and high relative humidity, and its relationship with disease incidence and bulb characteristics.  J. Amerc. Soc. Hort. Sci.  127:848-852.

 

Koch, M. F., Taanami, Z., and Levy, E.  1996.  Damage to garlic crops caused by Erwinia herbicola.  Phytoparasitica  24:125-126.

 

Mark, G. L., Gitaitis, and Lorbeer, J. W.  2002.  Bacterial diseases of onion.  Pp. 267-292, in Allium Crop Science:Recent Advances.  Edited by H. D. Rabinowitch and L. Currah, CABI Publishing, New York.

 

Mohan, S. K.  2008.  Soft rots.  Pp. 59-62 in: Compendium of Onion and Garlic Diseases and Pests, 2nd Ed.  Edited by H. F. Schwartz and S. K. Mohan.  APS Press, St. Paul, MN  127 pp.

 

Mohan, S. K.  2008.  Other bacterial soft rots.  P. 62-63 in: Compendium of Onion and Garlic Diseases and Pests, 2nd Ed.  Edited by H. F. Schwartz and S. K. Mohan.  APS Press, St. Paul, MN  127 pp.

 

Mohan, S. K.  2008.  Slippery skin.  P. 63-64 in: Compendium of Onion and Garlic Diseases and Pests, 2nd Ed.  Edited by H. F. Schwartz and S. K. Mohan.  APS Press, St. Paul, MN  127 pp.

 

Mohan, S. K.  2008.  Other bacterial diseases.  P. 68 in: Compendium of Onion and Garlic Diseases and Pests, 2nd Ed.  Edited by H. F. Schwartz and S. K. Mohan.  APS Press, St. Paul, MN  127 pp.

 

Morales, N., Victinghoff, J., de los Angeles Peres, M., Rodriguez de la Rosa, N., Moreno, A., Cuello, I., and Seidel, D.  1994.  [in German] Erwinia herbicola – A new pathogen of the onion seed production (Allium cepa L.) in Cuba.  Arch. Phytopath. Pflanz  29:29-40.

 

Myung, I.-S., Joa, J. H., and Shim, H. S.  2011.  Bacterial leaf spot of onion caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri, a new disease in Korea.  Plant Dis.  95:1311.

 

Nischwitz, C., Gitaitis, R., Sanders, H., Langston, D., Mullinix, B., Torrance, R., Boyhan, G., and Zolobowska, L.  2007.  Use of fatty acid methylester profiles to compare copper-tolerant and copper-sensitive strains of Pantoea ananatis.  Phytopathology  97:1298-1304.

 

Nunez, J. J., Gilbertson, R. L., Meng, X., and Davis, R. M.  2002. First report of Xanthomonas leaf blight of onion in California.  Plant Dis. Note  86:330.

 

O’Garro, L. W. and Paulraj, L. P.  1997.  Onion leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas campestris: Alternative hosts and resistant onion genotypes.  Plant Dis.  81:978-982.

 

Omidiji, O., and Ehimidu, J.  1990.  Changes in the content of anti bacterial isorhamnetin 3-glucoside and quercetin 3’-glucoside following inoculation of onion (Allium cepa L. cv Red Creole) with Pseudomonas cepacia.  Physiol. Mol. Plant Path.  37(4):281-292.

 

Paulraj, L. and O’Garro, L. W.  1992.  Aspects of the epidemiology of a leaf blight of onion in Barbados.  Barbados Soc. of Tech. in Agr., Proc. of the 10th Annual Conference, Pages 89-96.

 

Paulraj, L. and O’Garro, L. W.  1993.  Leaf blight of onions in Barbados caused by Xanthomonas campestris.  Plant Dis.  77:198-201.

 

Picard, Y, Roumagnac, P., Legrand, D., Humeau, L., Robene-Soustrade, I., Chiroleu, F., Gagnevin, L., and Pruvost, O.  2008.  Polyphasic characterization of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii associated with outbreaks of bacterial blight in three Allium species in the Mascarene Archipelago.  Phytopathology  98:919-925.

 

Roumagnac, P., Gagnevin, L., and Pruvost, O.  2000.  Detection of Xanthomonas sp., the causal agent of onion bacterial blight, in onion seeds using a newly developed semi-selective isolation medium.  Eur. J. of Pl. Path.  106:867-877.

 

Roumagnac, P., Pruvost, O., Chiroleu, F., and Hughes, G.  2004.  Spatial and temporal analyses of bacterial blight of onion caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii.  Phytopathology  94:138-146.

 

Samson, R., Shafik, H., Benjama, A., and Gardon, L.  1998.  Description of the bacterium causing blight of leek as Pseudomonas syringae pv. porri (pv. nov.).  Phytopathology  88:844-850.

 

Sanders, F. H., Langston Jr., D. B., Brock, J. H., and Gitaitis, R. D.  2003.  First report of a leaf blight of onion caused by Xanthomonas spp. in Georgia.  Plant Dis. Note  87:749.

 

Schroeder, B. K., and du Toit, L. J.  2010.  Effects of postharvest onion curing parameters on Enterobacter bulb decay in storage.  Plant Dis.  94:1425-1430.

 

Schroeder, B. K., Rogers, J. D., Johnson, D. A., and Pelter, G.  2007.  Occurrence of Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus causing onion soft rot in the Columbia Basin of Washington State.  Plant Dis.  91:1059.

 

Schroeder, B. K., Waters, T. D., and du Toit, L. J.  2010.  Evaluation of onion cultivars for resistance to Enterobacter cloacae in storage.  Plant Dis.  94:236-243.

 

Schroeder, B. K., Humann, J. L., and du Toit, L. J.  2012.  Effects of postharvest onion curing parameters on the development of sour skin and slippery skin in storage.  Plant Dis.  96:1548-1555.

 

Schwartz, H. F.  1995.  Bacterial Diseases.  Pp. 25-26 in: Colorado Onion Production and Integrated Pest Management. Edited by H. F. Schwartz and M. E. Bartolo.  Colo. State Univ. Ext. Bull. No. 547A, Fort Collins, CO  40 pp.

 

Schwartz, H. F., and Gent, D. H.  2005.  Xanthomonas Leaf Blight of Onion.  CSU Coop. Ext. Fact Sheet 2.951.  3 pp.

 

Schwartz, H. F., and Otto, K. J.  1998.  Onion bacterial disease management in Colorado.  Pp. 214-218 in: Proc. Of the 1998 National Onion (and other Allium) Research Conference, Dec. 10 – 12, 1998, Sacramento, CA.

 

Schwartz, H. F. and Otto, K.  2000.  First report of a bulb decay of onion by Enterobacter cloacae in Colorado.  Plant Disease Note  84:808.

 

Schwartz, H. F. and Otto, K.  2000.  First report of a leaf blight and bulb decay of onion by Pantoea ananitas in Colorado.  Plant Disease Note  84:808.

 

Schwartz, H. F. and Otto, K.  2000.  First report of a leaf blight of onion by Xanthomonas campestris in Colorado.  Plant Disease Note  84: 000.

 

Schwartz, H. F., Otto, K. L., and Gent, D. H.  2003.  Relation of temperature and rainfall to development of Xanthomonas and Pantoea leaf blights of onion in Colorado.  Plant Dis.  87:11-14.

 

Serfontein, J. J.  2001.  Xanthomonas leaf blight of onion in South Africa.  Plant Dis. Note  85:442.

 

Teviotdale, B. L., Davis, R. M., Guerard, J.P., and Harper, D. H.  1989.  Effect of irrigation management on sour skin of onion.  Plant Dis.  73:819-822.

 

Teviotdale, B. L., Davis, R. M., Guerard, J.P., and Harper, D. H.  1990.  Method of irrigation affects sour skin of onion.  California Agr.  44(5):27-28

 

Thomas, W. D. Jr., and Weinhold, A. R.  1953.  Xanthomonas striaformans, a new bacterial pathogen of onion.  J. of the Colo.-Wyo. Academy of Science  4(5):22.

 

Tomlinson, D. J.  1987.  A field and storage rot of onion (Alluim cepa L. var. cepa) caused by Pseudomonas cepacia in lowland Papua, New Guinea.  J. Phytopath.  120(2):184 - ??.

 

Walcott, R. R., Gitaitis, R. D., Castro, A. C., Sanders Jr., F. H., and Diaz-Perez, J. C.  2002.  Natural infestation of onion seed by Pantoea ananatis, causal agent of center rot. 

Plant Dis.  86:106-111.

 

Watson, D. R. W., and Hale, C. N.  1984.  Bacteria associated with onion bulb storage.  New Zealand J. of Exp. Agr.  12:351-355.

 

Wells, J. M., Sheng, W-S., Ceponis, M. J., and Chen, T. A.  1987.  Isolation and characterization of strains of Erwinia ananas from honeydew melons.  Phytopathology  77:511-514.

 

Wells, M. L., Gitaitis, R. D., and Sanders, F. H.  2002.  Association of tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) with two species of bacteria of the genus Pantoea.  Annals of the Ent. Soc. of America  95:719-723.

 

Wright, P. J.  1993.  Effects of nitrogen fertiliser, plant maturity at lifting, and water during field-curing on the incidence of bacterial soft rot of onions in store.  New Zealand J. Crop & Hort. Sci.  21:377-381.

 

Wright, P. J., and Grant, D. G.  1997.  Effects of cultural practices at harvest on onion bulb quality and incidence of rots in storage.  New Zealand J. Crop & Hort. Sci.  25:353-358.

 

Wright, P. J., and Grant, D. G.  1998.  Evaluation of Allium germplasm for susceptibility to foliage bacterial soft rot caused by Pseudomonas marginalis and Pseudomonas viridiflava.  New Zealand J. Crop & Hort. Sci.  26:17-21.

 

Wright, P. J., and Hale, C. N.  1992.  A field and storage rot of onion caused by Pseudomonas marginalis.  New Zealand J. Crop & Hort. Sci.  20:435-438.

 

Wright, P. J., Hale, C. N., and Fullerton, R. A.  1993.  Effect of husbandry practices and water application during field curing on the incidence of bacterial soft rot of onions in store. New Zealand J. Crop & Hort. Sci.  21:161-164.

 

Wright, P. J., Clark, R. G., and Hale, C. N.  1993.  A storage soft rot of New Zealand onions caused by Pseudomonas gladioli pv. alliicola.  New Zealand J. Crop & Hort. Sci.  21:225-227.

 

Zaid, A. M., Bonasera, J. M., and Beer, S. V.  2011.  First report of Enterobacter bulb decay of onions caused by Enterobacter cloacae in New York.  Plant Dis. 95:1581.

 

Zaid, A. M., Bonasera, J. M., and Beer, S. V.  2012.  OEM – A new medium for rapid isolation of onion-pathogenic and onion-associated bacteria.  J. Microbiological Methods  91:520-526.

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